ZIP+4 and DPC explained

From time to time, I get questions about how the ZIP+4 and DPC (Delivery Point Code, previously known as Delivery Point Barcode, or DPBC) are assigned.

A previous Utility Information Pipeline addressed (no pun intended!) mailing address quality. That issue described how to look up a ZIP+4 and the corresponding Delivery Point Code, but it didn’t describe them. An earlier issue explaining Intelligent Mail Barcodes touched briefly on how they are assigned, but didn’t go into great detail.

What does a ZIP+4 represent?

Here is an illustration using a map of a random street in Raleigh (chosen simply because it is laid out in a traditional block, not with curved streets and cul-de-sacs, like many neighborhoods):

Frank Street is in Raleigh ZIP code 27604.

For residential addresses, the ZIP+4 represents the odd or even side of a block. In this example, the ZIP+4 is 27604-2017 for odd side of the 500 block of Frank Street and 27604-2018 for the even side of the block.

What does the DPC represent?

As you can see from the map, mail sorted to the ZIP+4 includes multiple addresses. For example 27604-2017 includes the odd numbered addresses from 501 Frank Street through 511 Frank Street.

To improve upon this, the US Postal Service introduced the DPC which, when appended to the ZIP+4, creates a unique 11 digit number for every residential address. The DPC is the last two digits of the street number (or the post office box for PO Box addresses). Thus, 501 Frank Street becomes 27604-2017-01 and 503 Frank Street becomes 27604-2017-03, creating a unique numbering scheme for every address.

I’ve actually done a data matching project for a customer using this. We linked county tax information to their utility billing database using the 11 digit ZIP+4 and DPC as the initial link between addresses in the disparate systems.

How good is your address quality?

If your address quality needs to be improved, please give me a call at 919-232-2320, or email me at for more information about how a business review could help.

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© 2017 Gary Sanders

What are these barcodes on my bills?

Sometimes, when doing a sales presentation, I will ask if a utility prints payment barcodes on their bills. On more than a few occasions, I’ve had people confuse the postal barcode with a payment barcode.

What are the differences between the two? Let’s take a look…

Postal barcodes

Postal barcodes are the most common barcode found on utility bills. These barcodes, known as Intelligent Mail barcodes (IMb), are used by the Postal Service for sorting mail using high speed optical scanners. In order to receive any type of postal discount for your mailings, you must print the IMb on your mailpiece.

Placement of the IMb depends on the type of bills you print. For post card bills, the IMb can print either print immediately above or below the address block or in the lower right corner of the bill. If you print full page bills, either in-house or using an outsource printer, the IMb will print immediately above or below the address block, so it shows through the window envelope.

An IMb barcode is composed of four distinct symbols (tracking region only, ascending, descending and both ascending and descending) and looks like this:

Intelligent Mail barcode

Payment barcodes

Payment barcodes are used to expedite the process of entering payments. These barcodes generally encode at least the customer’s account number and amount due.

When entering payments in a system configured for processing barcodes, the user merely scans the barcode rather than keying in the customer’s account number. This can be used by cashiers handling walk-in payments or by a customer service representative entering mail payments in batches.

Payment barcodes generally look more like a traditional barcode (not unlike the UPC barcode used by most grocery stores) composed of narrow and wide bars of uniform height. Here is an example of a payment barcode:

Payment Barcode

Need assistance?

If you have questions about printing bills, processing payments or any other part of your office operation, please give me a call at 919-232-2320 or e-mail me at to learn how a business review could help your utility.

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© 2015 Gary Sanders

Does your office suffer from TTWWADI syndrome?

If you’ve ever asked a question and gotten the dreaded answer of “that’s the way we’ve always done it,” then your organization could be suffering from what I call TTWWADI syndrome.

Thats The Way We've Always Done It

Is TTWWADI syndrome holding you back?

Back in the day, the 3 R’s referred to reading, writing and arithmetic.

In an office afflicted with TTWWADI syndrome, the 3 R’s refer to resistance, reluctance and refusal.

I’m surprised at how often I run into utilities that are resistant to change. Do any of these situations sound familiar to you?

Is the same old way always the best way?

The TTWWADI syndrome isn’t found only in the failure to take advantage of new technologies. Often, antiquated ways of doing things become institutionalized in organizations to the point they are never questioned.

Sometimes, doing things the same way for years makes sense. But other times, when we stop to think about it, many practices – especially informal processes that have developed over time – no longer serve a useful purpose.

In forward thinking organizations, questioning why things are done a certain way isn’t chastised, it’s welcomed!                        

In forward thinking organizations, questioning why things are done a certain way isn’t chastised, it’s welcomed! If you do something a particular way with no real reason for continuing to do it that way, it behooves you to question why you’re still doing it.

Many times, those closest to a process are oblivious to how redundant or useless it has become. A knowledgeable, objective outsider observing and asking why things are done a particular way can lead to constructive discussions and improvements in how things are done.

Is it time to consider a business review?

Do you ever wonder if your office could be run more efficiently? Or would you just like confirmation that you’re doing things the right way?

In either case, please give me a call at 919-232-2320 or e-mail me at to learn how a business review could benefit your organization.

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© 2014 Gary Sanders

Looking back, looking ahead…

Being somewhat nostalgic, it’s only natural, as we bid 2013 farewell, to look back at the year…

Third anniversary

This issue marks the third anniversary of the Utility Information Pipeline. Readership continues to increase, by nearly 12% this year, as it surpassed 300 subscribers.

If you have co-workers or colleagues from other utilities who you feel would enjoy reading this newsletter, please take a minute and forward this to them.

And, on August 9 of this year, by blog reached a milestone with the 10,000th hit!

If you haven’t checked out my blog recently, I encourage you to do so. Each Utility Information Pipeline newsletter article is also posted to my blog as an archive. So if you’ve deleted an old newsletter e-mail that you wish you still had, try searching for it on my blog.

Most popular blog posts

For the second year in a row, convenience fees was the most popular blog post topic. This year, it was by a margin of more than two to one over the next most popular post. Here are the five most popular blog posts in terms of page views in 2013:

  1. Can we charge a convenience fee for credit card payments…?
  2. How much is your late fee?
  3. How is your general ledger reconciliation going…?
  4. Are you following these meter reading best practices?
  5. Intelligent Mail barcodes – are you ready…?

Looking ahead to 2014

It wouldn’t be the New Year without something to look forward to! For 2014, I’m planning to conduct an update to the Utility Fee Survey that was originally published in 2012.

I’m also contemplating a makeover to my blog, so be sure to check back to see if I’ve decided to get creative and try something new!

Ideas, anyone…?

After three years, topics to write about aren’t as easy to come up with as they were when I first started! If you have an idea or suggestion of a topic that you would like to learn more about, please give me a call at 919-232-2320 or e-mail me at

Happy New Year!

Wishing you and yours all the best for a healthy, happy, prosperous 2014!

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© 2013 Gary Sanders

How good is your mailing address quality?

One of the many things I do in my job is work with new customers in converting their data to Logics’ Utilities Management System.

In the process of doing this, I see a wide range in the quality of mailing addresses – from excellent to not so good. Let’s take a look at some steps you can take to improve the quality of your mailing addresses.

Addressing basics

Postal addressing standards call for no periods or commas in the address line. For example, P.O. BOX 123 should be PO BOX 123 and RALEIGH, NC should be RALEIGH NC.

Street name suffixes should always use standardized abbreviations. For example, RD in place of ROAD and ST for STREET.

Apartments and suites should always be listed at the end of the address. For example, 101-B MAIN ST should be 101 MAIN ST APT B.

The primary delivery address should always be immediately above the city, state and ZIP code. This is not an issue for most addresses, but can be in the case of long street names with a suite or apartment that won’t all fit on a single address line. In this case, the mailpiece should be addressed like this:


Looking up a ZIP code

Every address should have a ZIP code, preferably including ZIP+4. The US Postal Service website,, makes it easy to find a zip code. In the Quick Tools section at the top left of the home page, click Find a ZIP Code:

Find a ZIP Code

Enter the street address, city and state of the address you want the zip code for and click the Find button. This will display the address (in standardized format) with the ZIP code and ZIP+4. If you want additional address information, such as Carrier Route or Delivery Point Code (which is required for Intelligent Mail barcodes), click the Show Mailing Industry Details link:

ZIP Code Results

The full mailing industry details screen is shown here:

ZIP Code Results with Details

Publication 28

Are you familiar with USPS Publication 28? If you’re not and you are in any way responsible for being sure your bills get delivered to your customers as efficiently as possible, I recommend reading it.

It’s available from the Postal Service website, either as a PDF document (be forewarned – it’s 210 pages) or as interactive web pages with an index.

One of the features of Publication 28 is Appendix C1 which lists the standard abbreviations for most street suffixes. This is helpful if you’re unsure how to properly abbreviate a street suffix. For example, I live on Scouting Trail and, for the first few years I lived here, I thought Trail was abbreviated TR, but it’s not. According to Appendix C1, it should be TRL.

CASS certification software

If you use CASS certification software or an outsource printer to print your bills, you probably don’t worry about the quality of how your addresses are entered because the CASS certification software will correct the addresses. However, I would caution against this because the better your addresses are going into the CASS certification process, the more accurate the output will be.

Questions about address quality?

If you have questions about address quality, or anything else related to printing utility bills, please give me a call at 919-232-2320 or e-mail me at

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© 2013 Gary Sanders

Cycle billing – do you have too many cycles…?

The last issue dealt with moving to cycle billing. This week, we’ll take a look at the flip side of that coin.

Do you find yourself wondering if you bill too frequently and should reduce the number of billing cycles?

Improvements in meter reading

For years, one of the most common reasons for moving to cycle billing was the length of time it took to read meters. As a way to minimize days of exposure, many utilities moved to cycle billing.

For example, let’s take the example of a utility that used to take three weeks to read all their meters using handhelds. They’ve successfully made the move to automated meter reading and can now read the same meters in three days. In this case, it may not make sense any more to continue billing three times a month.

Does it seem like every other day is cut-off day?

The most common reason for moving to cycle billing is to balance office and staff workload. However, as improvements in technology and automation have reduced the amount of time it takes to do billing, perhaps it’s time to reexamine the reasoning behind the number of billing cycles you have.

This is especially true for utilities with more than four billing cycles per month. If you have five or six billing cycles, some weeks will have two cut-off days in them. Does this pose a scheduling issue for your field staff? If it does, consolidating some cycles may be the solution to your problem.

More efficient mailing

Another reason to consider reducing the number of billing cycles is mailing efficiency. Do you take advantage of the automation discounts offered by the Postal Service?

If so, it might be in your best interest to mail more bills at one time to be sure you meet the minimum requirements for discounts at each sorting level.

Does your office suffer from TTWWADI syndrome?

Many offices suffer from what I call TTWWADI (That’s The Way We’ve Always Done It) syndrome. If this describes your office (or if you’re not sure, but suspect if might), perhaps an independent review of your office policies and procedures is in order. Please give me a call at 919-232-2320 or e-mail me at to learn how a business review could help your office.

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© 2013 Gary Sanders